Chapter 40 – Apush

key terms:

Proposition 13: A successful California state ballot initiative that capped the state’s real estate tax at 1% of the assessed value.

Speak: Term for conservative Southern Democrats who increasingly voted for Republican issues during the Carter and Reagan administrations.

Supply-Side Economics: The economic theory that underlies Ronald Reagan’s tax and spending cuts.

Reganomics: The informal term for Reagan’s economic policies, which focused on reducing taxes, social spending, and government regulation while increasing outlays for defense.

Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI): The Reagan administration plan announced in 1983 to build a missile-defense system on American territory to prevent a nuclear attack.

Sandinistas: Left-wing anti-American revolutionaries in Nicaragua started a civil war in 1979.

Contradictions: Anti-Sadinista fighters in the Nicaraguan Civil War.

Glasnost: Meaning “openness”, a cornerstone with the perestroika of Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev’s reform movement in the USSR in the 1980s.

Perestroika: Meaning “to ban”, a cornerstone with glasnost of Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev’s reform movement in the USSR in the 1980s.

Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty: After several attempts, the Arms Limitation Agreement was settled by Reagan and Gorbachev.

Iran-Contra case: The major political scandal of Reagan’s second term. An illegal arrangement with Iran to sell “arms for hostages” and use the money to support opponents in Nicaragua, the scandal deeply damaged Reagan’s credibility:

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Moral majority: Political Action Committee founded by Evangelical Reverend Jerry Falwell in 1979 to promote traditional Christian values ​​and oppose feminism, abortion and gay rights.

Black Monday: 19 October 1987. The date of the largest single day drop in the Dow Jones Industrial Average as of September 2001.

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS): The organization formed in 1991 from the former republics of the Soviet Union.

Operation Desert Storm: In January and February 1991, the US-led multi-country military partnership that drove Saddam Hussein’s Iraqi forces out of neighboring Kuwait.

American Disabilities Act (ADA): A landmark law signed by President George HW Bush that prohibits discrimination against people with physical or mental disabilities. It represents a legislative victory for the champion of equal protection for all.

People to know:

Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States (1981–1989). Prior to his presidency, he served as 33rd governor of california (1967–1975), and was a radio, film and television actor.


Margaret Thatcher: Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Conservative Party leader from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British Prime Minister of the 20th century and the only woman to hold the position.



Mikhail Gorbachev: the former Soviet Politician. He was the seventh and last undisputed leader of the Soviet Union, who served as General Secretary Of Communist Party of the Soviet Union From 1985 to 1991, and from 1988 as Head of State its dissolution in 1991.


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Saddam Hussein: fifth President of IraqWorked in this post from 16 July 1979 to 9 April 2003.


Jerry Falwell: American evangelical southern baptist pastor,televangelistand a radical political commentator,


Sandra Day O’Connor: retired United States Supreme Court Justice, and in 2013 a . was listed as nafta adjudicator. he served as a associate justice Since his appointment in 1981 Ronald Reagan until his retirement from the court in 2006. She was the first woman to be appointed to the court.


George HW Bush: American politician who served as 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). a Republicanhe had previously served as 43rd Vice President of the United States(1981–1989), a Congressmanan ambassador, and central intelligence director,


Boris Yeltsin: Russian politician and first President Of Russian FederationServing from 1991 to 1999.


Nelson Mandela: South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politicianAnd philanthropist who served as president of south africa from 1994 to 1999.


Manuel Noriega: Former Panamanian politician and soldier. it was military dictator of Panama from 1983 to 1989 invasion of panama He was removed from power by the United States, captured, detained as a prisoner of war, and taken to the United States.


Norman (“Stormin’ Norman) Schwarzkopf: united states army General, while serving as commander in chief, United States Central Commandhe led all coalition forces In Persian Gulf War,


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Clarence Thomas: associate justice Of Supreme Court of the United States, successThurgood MarshallThomas is the second African American To serve in court.

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