Chapter 39 – Apush

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key terms:

Vietnameseization: Military strategy introduced by Nixon in 1969. The plan reduced the number of American combat troops in Vietnam and left more fighting for the South Vietnamese, who were supplied with American armor, tanks and weapons.

Nixon Doctrine: President Nixon’s “Peace with Honor” plan in Vietnam. The doctrine states that the US will honor its current defense commitments, but in the future, countries will have to fight their own wars.

silent majority: The Nixon administration’s term to describe generally content, law-abiding middle-class Americans who supported both the Vietnam War and America’s institutions.

My Lai Massacre: On March 16, 1968, a military attack on a small Vietnamese village, in which American troops under the command of Second Lieutenant William Calley killed hundreds of unarmed Vietnamese civilians, mostly women and children.

Kent State University: The massacre of four college students by National Guardsmen in Ohio on May 4, 1970.

Pentagon Papers: The secret US government report details initial planning and policy decisions regarding the Vietnam War under Presidents Kennedy and Johnson.

Detente: For “low tension” from the French, the period of the Cold War when the US and USSR negotiated low armament treaties under Presidents Nixon, Ford and Carter.

Miranda Alert: A statement of the constitutional rights of a detainee, which police officers must read during an arrest.

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Philadelphia Plan: The Nixon-founded program building trade unions needs to work toward hiring more black apprentices.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): A government organization signed into law by Nixon in 1970 was designed to regulate pollution, emissions, and other factors that negatively affect the natural environment.

Earth Day: International Day of Celebration and Awareness of Global Environmental Issues, started by conservationists on April 22, 1970.

Southern Strategy: Nixon re-election campaign strategy historically designed to appeal to conservative whites in the Democratic South.

War Powers Act: Legislation passed by Congress in 1973 limits the president’s ability to wage war without Congressional approval.

Watergate: A series of scandals that resulted in Nixon’s resignation in August 1974 amid calls for impeachment.

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA): Declared full constitutional equality for women.

Roe vs. Wade: The landmark judgment of the Supreme Court that prohibited states from prohibiting abortion, citing a woman’s constitutional right to privacy.

malaise speech: Jimmy Carter’s national address in July 1979 in which the president slammed American materialism and urged communal spirit in the face of economic difficulties.

Salt II: Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty Agreement between Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev and Carter.

Iranian hostage crisis: 444 days, from November 1979 to January 1981, during which Iranian revolutionaries assisted in the captivity of US embassy staff.

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to know:

Henry A Kissinger: American diplomat And politician, a recipient of Nobel Peace Prizehe served as national security advisor and later concurrently Secretary of State in the administration of presidents Richard Nixon And Gerald Ford,


Warren E. Burger: 15th Chief Justice of the United States From 1969 to 1986. Although Berger was a conservative, US Supreme Court made a variety of transformational decisions on abortion, death penalty, religious establishmentand school disaggregation during his tenure.



Rachel Carson: American Marine biologist And protectionist whose book silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement,


George McGovern: American historian, author, US representative,US SenatorAnd this Democratic Party presidential candidate in 1972 presidential election,


Gerald (“Jerry”) Ford: 38th President of the United StatesServed from 1974 to 1977 and before that, 40th Vice President of the United States Served from 1973 to 1974.


John Dean III: White House Counselor for the President of the United States Richard Nixon From July 1970 to April 1973. In this position, he became deeply involved in the events that watergate burglary And after this watergate scandal cover up.



James Earl (“Jimmy”) Carter, Jr.: American politician who served as 39th President of the United States (1977–1981) and 2002. has been awarded Nobel Peace PrizeHe is the only US President to receive the award after leaving office.


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Leonid Brezhnev: General Secretary Of central committee (CC) K Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), headed the country from 1964 until his death in 1982.

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